Mufassir, Muhaddith, Sufi, Bahr-ul-`Ulūm Allama Hazrat Mohammed Abdul Qadeer Siddiqui رحمة الله عليه Birthdate: October 12, 1871 (27 Rajab 1288) Passed away: March 24, 1962 (17 Shawwal 1381) Resting place: Siddiq Gulshan, Bahaddurpura, Hyderabad, India
Hazrat Muhammed Abdul Qadeer Siddiqui Hasrat رﺣﻤﺔ ﷲ ﻋﻠﯿﮫ was an Islamic theologian, a Qur’anic exegete, a poet and a Sufi in the lands of Southern India. The birthplace of Hazrat was Hyderabad City, and he was the first Dean of the Theology Faculty of the Osmania University, which was established by Hyderabad State’s Nizam VII Osman Ali Khan. Being a master in Islamic sciences, the colleagues and followers of Hazrat Muhammed Abdul Qadeer Siddiqui رﺣﻤﺔ ﷲ ﻋﻠﯿﮫ used to call him Bahr-ul-`Ulūm (Ocean of Knowledge). He wrote poetry in Arabic, Persian and Urdu, and chose a pen name Hasrat for his writings. He received various titles, but he preferred to call himself Maulvi, which was a title given to him when he was a child, by his Sheikh, Hazrat Syed Khawaja Muhammad Șiddīq MahboobAllah رحمة الله عليه.
He is the 28th direct descendant of the first Islamic Caliph, Hazrat Abu Bakr Șiddīq ٰرﺿﻲ ﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﯽ ﻋﻨﮫ, and is referred to by his religious followers as Qadeer Piya or “Qadeer the Beloved.” His ancestral town is Cheenak, which is a small area located close to Ahmedabad city in Gujarat’s modern Indian state. He received his basic education from spiritual teachers, who were giving him individual attention. Later, he graduated from the University of Punjab with the degrees of Maulvi Fazil and Munshi Fazil. He provided his services to Osmania University as Dean of Theology, and he did not stop spreading education, through his private home, even when he got retired.
He passed away in 1962 and is buried in the town of Siddiq Gulshan, Hyderabad. On the 16th, 17th and 18th of the Islamic month of Shawwal, celebration of his urs takes place every year. Different people composed his biographies, such as Toor-e-Tajalli, Yaad-e-Hasrat Ayaat (compiled by his son, Dr. Moosa Abdur Rehman Siddiqui), and Abdullah (a 600-page book compiled by his grandson, Muhammad Anwaruddin Siddiqui). These three are published in Urdu language.
His maternal uncle, Hazrat Syed Khawaja Muhammad Șiddīq MahboobAllah رحمة الله عليه. was his Murshid. After his Sheikh moved onto the next phase of his life, Hz. Muhammed Abdul Qadeer Siddiqui رحمة الله عليه, who was 24 years old at the time, traveled through the Muslim countries, acquiring knowledge and wisdom from various scholars and spiritual guides. However, whenever he used to say “My Sheikh”, he was referring to Hz Syed Khawaja Muhammad Siddique (Mahbooballah) رحمة الله عليه. He used to comment, “My grandfather is Siddiqi, a reference to his ancestor Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiq ٰرﺿﻲ ﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﯽ ﻋﻨﮫ , and my Sheikh is Siddiq. I am a Siddiqui from every angle”.
His works include Exegesis (Tafseer), Hadith, Logic, Philosophy, Literature, and Sufism. Among his prominent works, Tafseer-e-Siddiqui, the six-volume commentary, held the greatest significance, and generated reader interest and was published in various editions. In addition to this completed Qur’anic exegesis, Tafseer-e-Siddiqui, he also compiled separate commentaries based on the first chapter of the Qur’an “Surat al-Fatihah” titled “Tafsir-e-surat al-Fatihah” as well as the 30th part of the Qur’an Juz’ al-‘Amm. Hz. Muhammed Abdul Qadeer Siddiqui رﺣﻤﺔ ﷲ ﻋﻠﯿﮫ has written over fifty books, in addition to Quranic Exegesis, Tafseer-e-Siddiqui. He used Urdu language for majority of his Islamic works, that covers his books on Theosophy (Tasawwuf) as well. Following are the names of few of his books:
He believed that both the followers and critics of Sheikh have misunderstood Ibn Arabi’s Fusus-al-Hikam due to his different style; Hazrat decided to have an interpretive translation of the Sheikh’s work in Urdu. This translation was accepted by the critics and was widely used in the curriculum of several schools, including the University of Punjab, Lahore. Nonetheless, several of his books still have not advanced the draft stage.
“Kulliyyat-e-Hasrat” is the compilation of his poetry work in Urdu, Arabic, and Persian. As the name suggests, Kulliyyat is a combination of various genres of Urdu poetry, Ghazal, Qasidah, Marsia, Nazm, Ruba’iyat. It comprises of numerous Hamd, Na’at, Manqabat homage to his Sheikh and other Sufi saints of his order, such as Hazrat Ghaus-e-Azam, Sheikh Abdul Qadir Jilani R.A and Hazrat Khwājā Ghareeb Nawaz Moinuddin Chishti R.A of Ajmer, India.
The critics of Hanafi School of Fiqh consider it as a Fiqh of an individual’s opinion. He combined the Hadiths to explain the jurisprudential details of the Hanafi School of Law and that the entire focus of Hanafi School is the Quran and the Hadith. This work, written in Arabic and later translated in Urdu, is named “Ad-Din” and has the following four sections.
1. Kitab al-‘Ilm – Book of Knowledge.
2. Kitab al-Iman – Book of Faith
3. Kitab al-Ihsan – Book of Virtues
4. Kitab al-Islam – Book of Islam
It was included in the curriculum of Osmania University. These four books are published separately.
He was a compelling, realistic and learned preacher. Due to the level of knowledge he had, often, his articles on religious topics were published in local and foreign journals. Hazrat passed away at the age of 91. His Namaz-e-Janaza (Islamic funeral prayer) was held in Makkah Masjid and was attended by thousands of his Murideen and revered followers.